Thursday, July 10, 2014

TheOccurrence of Death in Plays (Zoo Story, M.Butterfly, Purgatory, and Dutchman)

 In this essay, I want to discuss some plays that have some similarities and differences about the occurrence of death. The first play is Zoo Story. In that play, there are two characters, Peter and Jerry. In the beginning of play, Peter did not interest at all to jerry’s conversation. Jerry always brings the idea of Zoo Story, what happened there, and he told the story of him, and the dog. The conflict occurred when jerry and Peter to fight over the bench. Then “With a rush he charges Peter and impales himself on the knife” (Zoo Story:13). The “death” happened because jerry’s character. Jerry makes the conflict and in the end, he killed himself through Peter.
In Dutchman by Amiri Baraka, the characters are Lula and Clay. Lula, thirty-year-old white woman met Clay, twenty-year-old Negro in the train. The similarity of Lula’s  and jerry’s character is they started a chat in that play, and keep asking to other, and make the conflict happened. Lula started making conversation, then seduced Clay, and invited him for having sex after party. The conflict is when Lula mocked Clay. “She switches strategies and mocks Clay's Anglo-American speech, his college education and his three-button suit. She rides his being black and passive. She dances mockingly in an R&B style and tells Clay to join her and "do the nasty. Rub bellies" (Dutchman: scene II). Besides both character Jerry and Lula has similarity, but they also has a difference. In Zoo Story, Jerry kills himself through Peter, but in Dutchman, Lula kills Clay. “killed himself” also occurred in M.Butterfly.
In M.Butterfly,Gallimard interested to Song. Those characters created the story become ironic. Song camouflage himself being oriental woman who attracted Gallimard. In the end of play, Gallimard performed Seppuku by wear Kimono. He said; “Women willing to sacrifice themselves for the love of man. Even a man whose love is completely without worth,… Death with honor is better than life”(M.Buttterfly : ACT 3 Scene 3). In Zoo Story, Jerry kills himself in the zoo to create how the Zoo Story happened, but, in M.Butterfly, gallimard kills himself after he found out about Song who actually was a man and in the end, he declared himself being butterfly, whereas at first, Galiimmard mentioned that butterfly is Song. The Performance before ”death” is also showed in Purgatory.
Purgatory by Yeats is the play that told about Old man and the boy. The meaning of Purgatory is the anniversary of the old man’s wedding night/the night wherein he was begotten or A silhouette of a lonely young girl/the old man’s mother. In this play, the old man kills his father and his son for the soul of his mother. “Release my mother’s soul from its dream! Mankind can do no more. Appease The misery of living and remorse of the dead” (Purgatory:7). The old man still kills his son, and he said that twice murderer and all for nothing. The old man did that, because he won’t his son repeat what he done, so that the old man kills his son. In M.butterfly, Gallimard performed Seppuku for his dishonor life. The “death” in Purgatory has similarity with Dutchman. In these plays, the main character kills others. Lula kills Clay and the old man kills the boy.
Those four plays have similarity and differences build by characters, conflict and theme. The characters in Zoo Story and Dutchman build the relationship between characters and the conflict but the occurrence of death (conflict) is different. Dutchman has same conflict with purgatory. It is “Kill other character”. In M.Butterfly and Zoo Story also has same conflict, it is “kill himself”, and then the performance before “death” occurred in Purgatory and M.Butterfly with different goal (Purgatory : for other, and M.butterfly : for himself).  The tool that used for “death” in four plays is same. It is a knife. In King Lear, the death of Cordelia by hung up, and in the Real Inspector Hound, the tool is a gun.

The occurrence of death is associated with body, because the death will happen if a thing (knife, gun, string) insisted to touch the body or there is something missing or gone of the body (soul). The occurrence of the death in those plays is important to create the conflict there. For example is the Zoo Story. In the beginning of the Zoo Story, the characters just having a chat, the story is simple but in the end, the death occurred when the characters have fought each other just for “the bench”. 

(Response 1)
Gender-stereotypes in Dutchman and M. Butterfly

Both Dutchman and M. Butterfly focus on two main characters. Dutchman is Lula and Clay. The contrast between two characters that Lula is “a tall, slender, beautiful woman with long red hair…wearing only loud lipstick in somebody’s good taste” (p. 1896). Clay is described as a young, middle-class, educated black man. He wears three-button suit, reading books, pretty much suggesting that he talks, acts and dresses like a white man (p. 1901). In this play, both Lula and clay indicate there is a gender stereotype. According Eagly and Steffen in their journal ; “A gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles, “A gender stereotype consists belief about the psychological and characteristic of, as well as the activities appropriate to, men or women. Gender stereotype are beliefs and attitudes about masculinity and feminity.” Lula’s role in the play shows female control. She controls conversation with Clay, and the whole play. Besides, Clay is passive and looks intimidated. From beginning, when Lula asks about he was staring at her through window, Clay shows his nervous in front of woman. Even Lula has to say twice that he was staring at her. Lula’s role shows masculinity even though she is a woman. In Dutchman, gender stereotype influenced by a race between black and white. The characters change their attitude in the climax when Lula started to mock black people.
In M. Butterfly, gender stereotype is about oriental woman which presented by Song Liling that makes Galimmard to be fooled by Song over twenty years. Gallimmard and Song have a sexual affair. Song takes advantage from Galimmard, because he considers Song as woman. He also believes that oriental woman as submissive and shy; “in real life, women who put their total worth at less than sixty-six cents are quite hard to find” (13) he thinks that oriental woman more modest than western woman. In this play, the stereotypes of race showed by the idea of East and West. Galimmard as Western man demonstrated the real masculinity, he said “Orientals will always submit to a greater force” (37) and Song as oriental woman indicates “Femininity”. The truth about Song is a man changes the stereotype between them. Gallimard the symbol of “masculine” being feminine because in the end, he still chooses his fantasy that Song is his butterfly. Song, the symbol of “feminine” becomes Oriental man that shows his masculinity in exposing his true identity.

Bibliography
Baraka, A. (1980). Dutchman. In G. McMichael, Anthology of American Literature. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
Hwang, D. H.(1986). " M. Butterfly":
Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of personality and social psychology, 46(4), 735

(Response 2)

Identity Confusion of character in Dutchman by Amiri Baraka

Dutchman is a play written by African-American playwright Amiri Baraka. The play published in late 19 century. The play focuses on the two characters, Lula and Clay. Lula is thirty-year-old white woman rides the train, and sat close to Clay, twenty-year-old Negro. In the beginning, the plot built by Lula. Lula accuses him that he was staring at her through window. Then she guesses what his past and his friend, Warren that makes Clay shocked of her knowledge. They engage in a long and flirtatious conversation throughout the train ride. Lula keeps asking to Clay. She even asked him to invite him to the party and after that alluded to having sex with Clay at her "apartment". The conflict begins when she failed to manipulated him. She mocks him about Clay's Anglo-American speech, his college education and his three-button suit. She rides his being black and passive. She dances mockingly in an R&B style and tells Clay to join her and "do the nasty. Rub bellies". (p.847) Then, in the end of play, Lula kills Clay.
The confusion identity also existed in “Shooting an Elephant” by George Orwell. The difference of those is in Orwell’s, the main character confused in himself about being colonizer. He is as a police officer in Burma. The Burmese hate him, because he is white people (European), but he would become a hero by shot an elephant. “All I knew was that I was stuck between my hatred of the empire I served and my rage against the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible.” (Orwell, 1936). He was struggle with himself when he was in condition to shoot the elephant. In the end, he shows his mind of being colonizer when shooting an elephant.
In Dutchman play, the confusion identity of main character, Clay appeared after Lula mocked him about black people. In the beginning of play, Lula said about Clay’s appearance You look like you’ve been trying to grow a beard. That’s exactly what you look like. You look like you live in New Jersey with your parents and are trying to grow a beard. That’s what. You look like you’ve been reading Chinese poetry and drinking lukewarm sugarless tea. (Laughs, uncrossing and recrossing her legs) You look like death eating a soda cracker. (p. 100). In this play, Lula brings the conversation alive. She keeps offering apple to Clay. Many critics argue that “Apple” related to an allusion to Biblical Eve. Lula seduced him with apple. “Eating apples together is always the first step. Or waking up uninhibited Seventh Avenue in the twenties on weekends” (p. 150). The apple becomes symbolic which is related to Clay’s identity in this play. First, when Lula always offers the apple, Clay answered with “Hey, what was in those apples? Mirror, mirror on the wall, who’s fairest one of all? Snow White, baby, and don’t you forget it.”(P.855). Snow White is the story about the girl poisoned with apple by a witch. That story is similar with Lula’s. She is a white woman who brings the apple which means Lula could be a witch to poison him.
Besides, In North America, an American Indian (Native American) is called an "apple" (a slur that stands for someone who is "red on the outside, white on the inside.") primarily by other American Indians to indicate someone who has lost touch with their cultural identity. First used in the 1980s. The significance of the term “apple” is that Dutchman play also published in 1980. Clay’s appearance shows loss of cultural identity. Cultural identity is about location, gender, race, history, nationality, language, sexuality, religious beliefs, ethnicity, aesthetics, and even food. When he in long monologue to respond Lula’s lack of knowledge about Black people, he forget that he dresses, talks, and acts like white people. When their conversations begin, Lula asks him if he was staring at her through window, Clay answers that he did not. He just looks window and he does not know he was staring. In that conversation, Clay looks nervous in front of white woman. Eldridge Cleaver described the soul-lacerating effects of that history four years later, in his memoir, “Soul on Ice”: “The white man forbade me to have the white woman on pain of death. . . . Men die for freedom but black men die for white women, who are the symbol of freedom. . . . Until the day I can have a white woman in my bed . . . I will still be a slave.” Although Clay dresses like white people but he could not cover his reaction to white woman.
The confusion identity of Clay shows that the culture has been distorted (Multiculturalism). Multiculturalism is the cultural diversity of communities within a given society and the policies that promote this diversity. As a descriptive term, multiculturalism is the simple fact of cultural diversity and the demographic make-up of a specific place, sometimes at the organizational level, e.g., schools, businesses, neighborhoods, cities, or nations. (Encyclopedia 1). In this play, a black man who strives to defend his culture actually tries to follow another culture. I think the speaker wants to show that multiculturalism could not accept easily. This play also related to ‘Black National Movement”. Black Nationalism advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. (Encyclopedia 2). Amiri Baraka is also joins that community.
This play shows that the confusion identity of Clay described how a black man in disguise being a white man. He leaves his own culture and follows other culture. In the end, it brings him in the death. The idea of disguise occurred in some plays (M. Butterfly, King Lear), but the disguise in Dutchman play is clearly seen from Clay’s body (he cannot cover his skin even though he talks, dresses, and acts like white man).

Bibliography
Baraka, A. (1980). Dutchman. In G. McMichael, Anthology of American Literature. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
Orwell, George. 1936. Shooting an Elephant. Retrieved on Friday, March 15 2013 at 20.00 PM from http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/887/
Cleaver, E., & Geismar, M. (1968). Soul on ice (p. 9799103). New York: Dell.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_nationalism


(Final paper)

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Ideology and literature

Scholes stated in his essay “English Apparatus” that the field of English is organized by two primary gestures of differentiation, dividing and re-dividing the field by binary opposition. He divides literature and non-literature, production and consumption, and real world and academy. Talking about literature, in his essay, I see that in literature has effect in the aspect of characterization or setting in some texts for example novel. Besides, all texts have secret –hidden deeper meanings. Mitchell said that the most common and na├»ve intuition about literature is that is “Representation of life” and representation has always played a central role in the understanding of literature. In the Resistance of Theory, Paul de Man differentiated literature and Ideology. He said that;
“Literature is fiction not because it somehow refuses to acknowledge “reality”, but because it is not a priori certain that language functions according to principles which are those or which are like those, of the phenomenal world. It is therefore not a priori certain that literature is reliable source of information about anything but its own language.”
While ideology is precisely the confusion of linguistic with natural reality of reference with phenomenalism. Althusser, in his influential essay, “Ideology and ideological state apparatuses,” he included literature among ideological apparatuses which contribute to the process of reproduction the relations of production. Scholes had said that when we read the texts is not simply as consumption but as a productive activity and the making of meaning. So that I argue that in the literature which consists deeper meaning, there is ideology of the writer in it. Frye also said the first thing that literary critics has to do is to read literature, to make an inductive survey of his own field an let his practical  principles shape themselves solely out of his knowledge of that field.
For example, in Five Children and It in chapter 2, Nesbit’s writing influenced by her ideology. She showed that money is everything, and middle-class people are difficult to have any gold in that condition in that novel. Her ideology is Fabian. She published that novel while she joined with Fabian Society.
"They [Fabian Socialists] were going to create a just society for the British workers - the beginning of a welfare state, cheap council housing, free medicine and dental treatment, free spectacles, generous unemployment benefits. …. We did not see until the 1970s that that was the beginning of big problems contributing to the inevitable decline of the British economy."
Lee Kuan Yew interview with Lianhe Zaobao
According to Althusser’s reading (re-reading) of marx;
“Ideology is not simply a set of illusions, as the German Ideology seems to argue, but a system of representations (discourses, images, myths) concerning the real relations in which people live. But what is represented in Ideology is “not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of which they live.” (Althusser 1971, p.155).
From that quote, “ideology is imaginary relation of which they live” seems that what Nesbit established in Five Children and It, to be represented Nesbit’s Ideology. As Mitchell said, that representation is always of something or someone, by something or someone, to someone. It is obvious that her writing represented her ideology. Belsey makes it clearer by speaking in Constructing the Subject: Deconstructing the Text that ideology is both a real and an imaginary relation to the world. Real in that it is the way in which people really live their relationship to the social relations which govern their condition of existence, but imaginary in that it discourages a full understanding of these conditions of existence and the ways in which people are socially constituted within them.

Bibliography
Scholes, Robert. 1985.  English Apparatus.
Frye, Northrop. 1949. The Function of Criticism at the Present Time.              
Althusser, Louis (1971) Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, tr. Ben Brewster (London:Caper)
Belsey, Catherine. (1940) Constructing the Subject:Deconstructing the Text.
Mitchell, W.J.T. 1995. Representation.
Michael Barr (March 2000). "Lee Kuan Yew's Fabian Phase". Australian Journal of Politics & History 46 (1): 110–126. 



Monday, January 6, 2014


Hasrat dan Nilai dalam Novel Trilogy Psammead Karya Edith Nesbit

In my skripsi, I will discuss the trilogy novel  “Psammead” by Edith Nesbit. Those novels are Five Children and It (1902), the Carpet and Phoenix (1904), and the Story of Amulet (1906). Those novels have different setting of place, and presence of parents. I want to demonstrate how influence from different place and presence of parent to characters of children in those novels.
On the country has gathered the idea of a natural way of life: of peace, innocence, and simple virtue. On the city has gathered the idea of an achieved center: of learning, communication, light. Powerful hostile associations have also developed: on the city as a place of noise, worldliness, and ambition; on the country as a place of backwardness, ignorance, limitation. (William, the country and the city)
Actually, in Five Children and It, in some chapters I found some problems there. In chapter 1 “Beautiful as the Day”, the children wanted to be “beautiful” and they asked to their Fairy “Psammead” to grant their wish.
"I wish we were all as beautiful as the day” (Nesbit, 12)
Psammead granted “beautiful” to be “Grow up” and in the end when they came back to their home, Martha, who was their servant did not know them and drove away them. In “The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the I as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience” by Jacques Lacan, he said that “The child at an age when he is for a time, however short, outdone by the chimpanzee in instrumental intelligence, can nevertheless already recognize as such his own image in a mirror”.  Although they still “child” but they can see themselves in the mirror or they looked each other to recognize themselves. Lacan, in his essay, also stated the child could recognize themselves in the child’s own body, and the persons and things around him. For example, the child from the age at 5 months, when at the age he should crawl on hands and knees, but he wanted to stand up. It showed that he (the child) saw he person around him who can stand even run, and he wanted to follow that person. It same with the children in the novel “Five Children and It”, they wanted to be beautiful when they saw people around them, and one of them is Martha (the servant). It seems they wanted to do by their own selves, then they did not know what to do so that they came back to their home, but Martha did not notice and drove away them.
There are some points in this first chapter of “Five Children and It” that I want to find out. Why they want to be beautiful as an adult? When they became adult, why Martha did not know them even drove away them? Is it related that an adult can make a lie but the child not?
In chapter 2 “Golden Guineas”, they asked to “Psammead” want to be rich and “it” gave many of gold to them. In the end, they cannot buy anything they wanted, because it is unreasonable to them to have many of gold, even they accused as thief. They always fail and fail to reach what they wanted. In the last chapter “The Last Wishes”, when the “Psammead” asked them about the last wish they have, they think first before they speak. In the beginning, they wanted some gold to their mom, but they afraid their mom will be accused as a thief like them (it’s like they learned something).
            “…and the children had been in London for two years, without so much as once going to the seaside even for a day by an excursion train, and so the White House seemed to them a sort of Fairy Palace set down in an Earthly Paradise. For London is like prison for children, especially if their relations are not rich.” (Nesbit, P2)
From that novel, I can see that the writer want to show different class there at that time. It related with the writer’s ideology. Nesbit is a Fabian, she wanted to show that “money is everything” at that time in that novel. It can be seen in chapter 2 when they wanted to be rich, but they failed and accused as the thief. Nesbit joined with Fabian Society in 1883. Those novels written after she joined Fabian Society.




sources:
Nesbit, E. (1993(reprint)). Five Children and It. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Edition
Lacan, Jacques. “The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the I as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience”.
Williams, R. (1973). The country and the city. New York: Oxford University Press.


Thursday, November 28, 2013

Sinopsis Bab 1 “Beautiful as the Day” pada Novel Five Children and It karya Edith Nesbit

Novel Five Children and It adalah novel yang menceritakan 5 tokoh dan peri. Kelima anak tersebut adalah, Cyril dikenal sebagai Squirrel, Anthea dikenal sebagai Panther, Robert dikenal sebagai Bobs, Jane dikenal sebagai Pussy, Hilary - adik bayi mereka, yang selalu mereka panggil Lamb, dan peri yang dipanggil sebagai Psammead. Setting tempatnya di pedesaan di daerah Kent, sebelumnya mereka tinggal di London selama 2 tahun. Ketika di London, mereka menganggap hidup mereka seperti di penjara, karena mereka tidak di ijinkan keluar oleh orangtuanya. Sepertinya, ini ada kaitannya bahwa tinggal di kota lebih diperhatikan dan banyak orang-orang di kota lebih menjalani hidup masing-masing. Juga, banyak orang yang tinggal di kota lebih memikirkan bagaimana caranya untuk menghasilkan uang. Sepertinya sari hal tersebut akan muncul beberapa tindak kriminal seperti mencuri, merampok dan lainnya. Tingkat kriminalitas di kota lebih besar dibandingan di desa, makanya banyak perumahan di kota memiliki pagar yang tinggi. Hal tersebut bisa jadi karena mereka tidak ingin di ganggu, atau mereka ingin menghindari tindak pencurian. Selain itu, di novelnya di ceritakan bahwa anak-anak di kota banyak yang nakal tidak seperti di desa ketika anak-anak nya melakukan kesalahan, bibi, paman atau saudaranya akan menjelaskan mana yang benar dan salah.
Mereka tinggal bersama Martha, pengurus rumah tangga baru, karena ayahnya pergi dalam perjalanan bisnis dan ibunya pergi mengunjungi nenek mereka yang sedang sakit. Ketika di London, mereka benar-benar diawasi oleh kedua orangtuanya, tapi ketika tinggal di desa, mereka dititipkan ke pengurusnya. Ini menunjukan kekhawatiran kedua orangtua mereka lebih sedikit ketika anak-anaknya tinggal di desa. Dan juga asumsi saya kehadiran dan ketidakhadiran orangtua mereka bisa mempengaruhi hasrat mereka ketika meminta permintaan ke si peri.
Dalam bab 1, “Beautiful as the Day”, ketika mereka bermain dipantai dan menggali pasir mereka menemukan peri yang “berbeda” dari peri biasanya. Peri itu seperti gabungan beberapa hewan. Matanya ada ditanduknya seperti siput, telinganya seperti kelelawar, tubuhnya gendut seperti laba-laba ditutupi dengan bulu-bulu yang lembut dan tebal menutupi lengan dan kakinya seperti seekor monyet. Saat mereka tahu bahwa peri itu bisa mengabulkan permintaan, 4 tokoh anak-anak itu(karena Lamb masih kecil, dia tidak dilibatkan dalam meminta permintaan kepada perinya) meminta menjadi “cantik” kepada si perinya. “Cantik” yang mereka inginkan ternyata menjadi orang yang dewasa. Karena Hilarry/Lamb tidak dilibatkan, dia satu-satunya yang tidak mengalami perubahan. Pada awalnya, hillary sempat takut untuk dibawa sama kakak-kakaknya, tapi salah satu dari mereka berhasil membujuk Hillary. Ketika mereka pulang kerumah, Martha hanya membawa Hillary dan mengusir yang lainnya, karena mereka berubah. Dalam bagian ini, tokoh Hillary dan Martha menjadi sorotan karena Hillary sebagai anak kecil percaya kepada 4 tokoh anak-anak tersebut, sedangkan Martha yang bisa dikatakan sudah dewasa menganggap pengakuan (mereka yang telah berubah menjelaskan bahwa mereka adalah anak-anak tersebut) itu bohong dan mengusir mereka.

 Mereka pergi dan menunggu hingga matahari terbenam. Mereka kembali kerumah saat mereka telah kembali ke keadaan semula menjadi anak-anak. Martha bilang bahwa ada 4 orang dewasa yang mengaku sebagai mereka dan mencoba menipunya, namun Martha tidak mempercayai mereka, dan untungnya  4 anak-anak itu telah kembali. Sepertinya perkataan anak kecil lebih dipercaya dibandingkan orang dewasa. Apa ada kaitannya bahwa orang dewasa karena telah menjalani banyak hal lebih “bisa” untuk berbohong dibandingkan anak kecil? Ini juga menjadi catatan penting, karena setiap mereka memiliki hasrat selalu diakhiri dengan nilai-nilai yang mereka ambil dari sana sebagai pelajaran untuk tidak sembarang meminta permintaan. Lalu, yang digarisbawahi juga kenapa keinginan mereka menjadi cantik harus menjadi dewasa? kemungkinannya, ketika mereka melihat diri mereka berbeda dari orang-orang disekitar mereka yang kebanyakan adalah orang-orang dewasa membuat mereka ingin mengikuti apa yang mereka lihat. 

Wednesday, November 27, 2013


Beautiful as the Day

In my thesis, I will discuss the trilogy novel by Edith Nesbit. One of them is “Five Children and It.” In that novel, in chapter 1 “Beautiful as the Day”, the children wanted to be “beautiful” and they asked to their Fairy Tale “Psammead” to grant their wish.
"I wish we were all as beautiful as the day” (Nesbit, 12)
Psammead granted “beautiful” to be “Grow up” and in the end when they came back to their home, Martha, who was their servant did not know them and drove away them. In “The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the I as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience” by Jacques Lacan, he said that “The child at an age when he is for a time, however short, outdone by the chimpanzee in instrumental intelligence, can nevertheless already recognize as such his own image in a mirror”.  Although they still “child” but they can see themselves in the mirror or they looked each other to recognize themselves. Lacan, in his essay, also stated the child could recognize themselves in the child’s own body, and the persons and things around him. For example, the child from the age at 5 months, when at the age he should crawl on hands and knees, but he wanted to stand up. It showed that he (the child) saw he person around him who can stand even run, and he wanted to follow that person. It same with the children in the novel “Five Children and It”, they wanted to be beautiful when they saw people around them, and one of them is Martha (the servant). It seems they wanted to do by their own selves, then they did not know what to do so that they came back to their home, but Martha did not notice and drove away them.
There are some points in this first chapter of “Five Children and It” that I want to find out. Why they want to be beautiful as an adult? When they became adult, why Martha did not know them even drove away them? Is it related that an adult can make a lie but the child not?

sources:
Nesbit, E. (1993(reprint)). Five Children and It. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Edition
Lacan, Jacques. “The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the I as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience”.